The human microbiome can influence the onset and / or progression of prostate cancer through both direct and indirect interactions.
Recently most studies have focused on direct interactions, including the influence of prostate infections on the risk of prostate cancer and more, related on the composition of the urinary microbiome in relation to prostate cancer.
Less known are the indirect interactions of the microbiome with prostate cancer, such as the influence of the gastrointestinal or oral microbiota on the pro-or anti-carcinogenic xenobiotic metabolism and the response to treatment.
Microbiome and prostate cancer: the literature
Let's examine the literature we have so far on the direct and indirect interactions of the microbiome and the inflammation of the prostate and prostate cancer:
Emerging studies indicate that the microbiome can influence the inflammation of the prostate in relation or in thet benign of prostate diseases such as:
2. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
3. Prostatic hyperplasia, Benign
4. As well as in prostate cancer.
The current evidence
The current evidence shows us how the human microbiome present in various anatomic sites like:
1. Urinary tract
2. Gastrointestinal tract
3. Oral cavity
May play an important role in health and prostate disease.
In health, the microbiome encourages homeostasis and helps on educate the immune system. In dysbiosis, a systemic inflammatory condition can be induced, as whell predisposes remote anatomical sites to diseases, including cancer.
The ability of the microbiome to affect systemic hormone levels may also be important, particularly in a disease such as prostate cancer that is twice influenced by estrogen and androgen levels.
Because of the complexity of the potential interconnection between prostate cancer and the microbiome, it is crucial to further explore and understand the relationships that are involved.